Water hardness has traditionally been defined as the capacity of water to subside soap. The ionic species in the water causing the precipitation was later found the chemicals to be primarily calcium and magnesium. In the present, therefore, water hardness is actually a quantitative measure of these ions in the water sample. It is also now known that certain other ion species, such as iron, zinc and manganese, contribute to the overall water hardness. The measure and subsequent control of water hardness is essential to prevent scaling and clogging in water pipes.
The HI 3812 test kit tests the hardness level as mg/L (ppm) calcium carbonate, via an EDTA (ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid) titration.