What is Psychology? Its Types and Perspectives

Definition of Psychology:

Psychology is the scientific study of the human mind and its functions, especially those affecting behavior in a given context.

The word ‘Psychology’ comes from the Greek word ‘Psyche’ which means awareness or consciousness. Psychology directly reflects the inner side of a person & his essence (soul). A character is formed with which a man is attributed in nature.
It is basically a behavioral and mental science.

Scientific Context of Psychology

  • Psychology incorporates the scientific processes
  • Research is done via accepted theories as follows:
    • Problem statement
    • Hypotheses
    • Designing the research
    • Data Collection and Analysis
    • Replicating process
    • Final Conclusion

Behavioral Context of Psychology

  • Incorporates Social Relationship:
    • Emotional Response
    • Mental Functioning of the person
    • Overt actions, observable actions like walking, running, touching, etc.
    • Social relationships are like social interaction.
    • Emotional Reactions feelings of anger, laziness, happiness, depression, etc.
    • Physiological Reactions like a heartbeat, biological reactions, fondness, etc.

Types of Psychology

Generally, we see the 9 types of psychologies which are practiced in Bangladesh. 1. Developmental Psychology 2. Educational Psychology 3. Forensic Psychology 4. Geriatric Psychology 5. Health Psychology 6. Organizational Psychology 7. Physiological Psychology 8. Experimental Psychology 9. Social Psychology.

Let us know the details about the Types of Psychology:

  1. Developmental Psychology is mainly practiced on the human being. The process of human growth & development from birth until he dies. It certainly explains the behavioral changes due to age factors.
  2. Educational Psychology is research-oriented psychology. The center of attention on how people gain knowledge from educators or supervision. Counselors may be appropriate for the findings of psychologists in schools, universities, and other educational institutions.
  3. Forensic Psychology is related to administration. It is the branch of psychology that interacts with the law & facilitates law enforcement organizations during a crime investigation. It is generally a natural science & includes some experimental methods.
  4. Geriatric Psychology gives attention to the physical condition and the health of older people. This field of human actions takes account of both matter-of-fact and research applications.
  5. Health Psychology is a study of human behavior that is alarmed with the psychological insinuation of actions on health like smoking, losing weight, etc. Physical health directly affects human mental health and thus therapists sincerely pay attention to this process.
  6. Organizational Psychology gives attention to your dealings towards work. This study of human behavior takes in job efficiency, vocational counseling, retirement plans, etc.
  7. Physiological Psychology is concerned with the hereditary and physical roots of psychological disorders. Such as how our brains work differently after drug use or how cells build up and function.
  8. Experimental psychologists have elaborated the views to a wider extent and have given the thought that experimentation is suspect in nature.
  9. Social Psychology looks at how we remain or stay in this world. It experiments with cultural behavior, group behavior, and our approach and view, as elements of social psychology.

Perspectives on Psychology

Biological Perspective

Biological Perspective on Psychology
Biological Perspective

Physiological research plays an important role in psychological development which is considered as a different science. Nowadays, this perspective is called biological psychology or sometimes referred to as biopsychology. It mainly focuses on the physical and biological aspects of a person’s behavior.


→ Behavioral psychology mainly focuses on experimental behavior.
→ Behavioral principles are often applied in health settings (psychiatric), where therapists and counselors use these techniques to explain and treat illness.


In the 1960s, a new perspective emerged known as cognitive psychology. It usually focuses on mental processes. This area deals with memory, thinking, problem solving, language, and decision-making.


A fairly new perspective that has reached maturity. Here, psychologists and researchers look at human behavior across cultures.


It focuses on the study of how evolution explains physiological processes. The basic principles of evolution along with natural selection are analyzed by psychologists and researchers and are further applied to psychological phenomena. It says the existence of these mental processes is due to their character which serves an evolutionary purpose such as they aid in reproduction and survival.

Humanistic perspective

In the 1950s, a school of thought known as humanistic psychology emerged, which emphasized the role of motivation in thought and behavior. Self-realization and several others are an essential part of it.

Psychodynamic perspective

It originally arose from the work of Sigmund Freud which emphasized the role of the unconscious mind, early childhood experiences, and interpersonal relationships in explaining human behavior.

Source of Information:,,

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